Bronchial asthma is a medical condition which causes the airway path of the lungs to swell and narrow. Due to this swelling, the air path produces excess mucus making it hard to breathe, which results in coughing, short breath, and wheezing. The disease is chronic and interferes with daily working. The disease is curable and inhalers help overcome asthma attacks. Bronchial Asthma can affect any age or gender and depends upon environmental and hereditary factors at large. When ignored, disease proves fatal claiming lives in many cases. As per a recent survey, more than 1 million cases are reported every year in India.
The symptoms may vary from individual to individual and depends on environmental factors. A person may show regular symptoms of the disease or periodic symptoms that may prompt at a certain time. The most common signs of asthma that can help diagnose the disease are:
Breathlessness or short breath while talking, laughing, or running.
Chest Pain or tightness.
Sleep apnea or trouble while sleeping caused by breathlessness.
Coughing or wheezing (whistling sound from chest while sleeping or lying down).
Cold and flu due to viral infection.
Dr. Sundeep Mestri Is Doctor For Sleep Disorders In Vashi Upper-airway obstruction occurring during sleep—that is, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB)—was first demonstrated in the 1960s. SDB represents a group of physiopathologic conditions that are characterized by an abnormal respiratory pattern during sleep that can be isolated or can coexist with other respiratory, nervous, cardiovascular, or endocrine diseases. SDB is now known to be widely prevalent in the general population, and it is responsible for or contributes to numerous problems, ranging from fragmented sleep patterns to hypertension to traffic accidents.
Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer.
Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread to lymph nodes or other organs in the body, such as the brain. Cancer from other organs also may spread to the lungs. When cancer cells spread from one organ to another, they are called metastases.
Lung cancers usually are grouped into two main types called small cell and non-small cell. These types of lung cancer grow differently and are treated differently. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common than small cell lung cancer.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that usually affects the lungs, though it can affect any organ in the body. It can develop when bacteria spread through droplets in the air. TB can be fatal, but in many cases, it is preventable and treatable.
In the past, TB, or “consumption,” was a major cause of death around the world. Following improvements in living conditions and the development of antibiotics, the prevalence of TB fell dramatically in industrialized countries.
A person may develop TB after inhaling Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) bacteria. When TB affects the lungs, the disease is the most contagious, but a person will usually only become sick after close contact with someone who has this type of TB.
A person can have TB bacteria in their body and never develop symptoms. In most people, the immune system can contain the bacteria so that they do not replicate and cause disease. In this case, a person will have TB infection but not active disease.
Doctors refer to this as latent TB. A person may never experience symptoms and be unaware that they have the infection. There is also no risk of passing on a latent infection to another person. However, a person with latent TB still requires treatment.
The body may be unable to contain TB bacteria. This is more common when the immune system is weakened due to illness or the use of certain medications.
When this happens, the bacteria can replicate and cause symptoms, resulting in active TB. People with active TB can spread the infection.
Without medical intervention, TB becomes active in 5–10% of people with the infection. In about 50% of these people, the progression occurs within 2–5 years of getting the infection, according to the CDC.
Spirometry (spy-ROM-uh-tree) is a common office test used to assess how well your lungs work by measuring how much air you inhale, how much you exhale and how quickly you exhale.
Spirometry is used to diagnose asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other conditions that affect breathing. Spirometry may also be used periodically to monitor your lung condition and check whether a treatment for a chronic lung condition is helping you breathe better.
Your doctor may suggest a spirometry test if he or she suspects your signs or symptoms may be caused by a chronic lung condition such as:
If you've already been diagnosed with a chronic lung disorder, spirometry may be used periodically to check how well your medications are working and whether your breathing problems are under control. Spirometry may be ordered before a planned surgery to check if your lung function is adequate for the rigors of an operation. Additionally, spirometry may be used to screen for occupational-related lung disorders.
Decortication refers to a surgical procedure done to free a fibrous capsule that has formed around the lung, secondary to an inflammatory process, such as an infection. Ordinarily there is a space between the lung and the inside of the chest wall, with this space "lubricated" by a thin layer of fluid. In some conditions, such as pneumonia, or after an episode of bleeding in the chest, this space can fill with fluid which can eventually solidify and form a capsule around the lung. This type of infection is called an “empyema”. The infected material deposited onto the lung is called a pleural peel.
As the capsule grows, it can entrap the lung and cause problems with breathing. In a decortication operation, the surgeon works to remove this capsule and free the lung so that it can function normally. Following the decortication surgery, you will have a drainage or “chest tube” left in for a few days until your lung is totally healed and stuck up to the chest wall. Our surgeons use minimally invasive techniques such as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) to perform the procedure.
Pleurisy is a type of chest pain. It affects a part of your body called the pleura.
The pleura is a thin layer of tissue that wraps your lungs. They fit snugly within your chest, which is lined with another thin layer of pleura.
These layers keep your bare lungs from rubbing against the wall of your chest cavity every time you breathe in. There’s a bit of fluid within the narrow space between the two layers of pleura to keep everything moving smoothly.
When you’re healthy, you never notice your pleura at work. But if your pleura has a problem, you’ll feel it.
When the pleurae are swollen and inflamed, they rub against each other in a very painful way each time your lungs expand. When you inhale deeply, cough, sneeze, or laugh, you’ll probably feel a sharp, stabbing pain in the area that’s affected.
Chest pain from pleurisy has signs that can make it easy for your doctor to know that you have it. You’re likely to notice these things:
A sharp, stabbing pain that causes you to take small, shallow breaths because it’s worse when you try to breathe deeply
Pain that spreads to your shoulder or back
Fever and chills
Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi cause it. The infection causes inflammation in the air sacs in your lungs, which are called alveoli. The alveoli fill with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe.
The germs that cause pneumonia are contagious. This means they can spread from person to person.
Both viral and bacterial pneumonia can spread to others through inhalation of airborne droplets from a sneeze or cough. You can also get these types of pneumonia by coming into contact with surfaces or objects that are contaminated with pneumonia-causing bacteria or viruses.
You can contract fungal pneumonia from the environment. However, it doesn’t spread from person to person.
Pneumonia symptoms can be mild to life-threatening. They can include:
Pneumonia symptoms can be mild to life-threatening. They can include:
sweating or chills
shortness of breath that happens while doing normal activities or even while resting
chest pain that’s worse when you breathe or cough
feelings of tiredness or fatigue
loss of appetite
nausea or vomiting
Children under 5 years old may have fast breathing or wheezing.
Infants may appear to have no symptoms, but sometimes they may vomit, lack energy, or have trouble drinking or eating.
Older people may have milder symptoms. They can also exhibit confusion or a lower than normal body temperature.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a group of many lung conditions. All interstitial lung diseases affect the interstitium, a part of your lungs.
The interstitium is a lace-like network of tissue that goes throughout both lungs. It supports your lungs' tiny air sacs, called alveoli. Normally, the interstitium is so thin that it doesn’t show up on X-rays or CT scans.
A bronchoscopy is a procedure that allows a doctor to examine the inside of the lungs, including the bronchi, which are the main pathways into the lungs.
During a bronchoscopy, a doctor inserts a thin tube containing a light and camera into the lungs through the nose or mouth. The doctor can use the findings to diagnose infections, tumors, or diseases in the lungs.
It is a relatively quick and painless procedure, it requires little preparation, and people tend to recover quickly.
In this article, we describe what to expect before, during, and after a bronchoscopy. We also discuss the uses of this procedure and associated complications
A mediastinoscopy is a procedure used to examine the mediastinum. This is the space behind the breastbone (sternum) in the middle of the chest, between the 2 lungs. It contains:
The heart and its great vessels
The windpipe (trachea)
The tube that leads down to the stomach (esophagus).
The thymus gland, a part of the immune system
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